During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest. In , a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino. After the invention of the printing press in , publications became widespread but there was no standard of journalistic ethics to follow.
By the 17th century, historians began the practice of citing their sources in footnotes. In when Galileo went on trial, the demand for verifiable news increased. During the 18th century publishers of fake news were fined and banned in the Netherlands; one man, Gerard Lodewijk van der Macht, was banned four times by Dutch authorities—and four times he moved and restarted his press. Canards , the successors of the 16th century pasquinade , were sold in Paris on the street for two centuries, starting in the 17th century.
In , Marie Antoinette was executed in part because of popular hatred engendered by a canard on which her face had been printed. During the era of slave-owning in the United States, supporters of slavery propagated fake news stories about African Americans, whom white people considered to have lower status.
In one instance, stories of African Americans spontaneously turning white spread through the south and struck fear into the hearts of many people. Rumors and anxieties about slave rebellions were common in Virginia from the beginning of the colonial period, despite the only major uprising occurring in the 19th century. One particular instance of fake news regarding revolts occurred in The serving governor of Virginia at the time, Governor William Gooch, reported that a slave rebellion had occurred but was effectively put down — although this never happened.
After Gooch discovered the falsehood, he ordered slaves found off plantations to be punished, tortured, and made prisoners. One instance of fake news was the Great Moon Hoax of The New York Sun published articles about a real-life astronomer and a made-up colleague who, according to the hoax, had observed bizarre life on the moon. The fictionalized articles successfully attracted new subscribers, and the penny paper suffered very little backlash after it admitted the next month that the series had been a hoax.
From to , James Cheetham made use of fictional stories to advocate politically against Aaron Burr. Maine exploded in the harbor of Havana , Cuba. Fake news became popular and spread quickly in the s. Media like newspapers, articles, and magazines were in high demand because of technology. Unfounded rumors regarding such a factory circulated in the Allied press starting in , and by the English-language publication North China Daily News presented these allegations as true at a time when Britain was trying to convince China to join the Allied war effort; this was based on new, allegedly true stories from The Times and The Daily Mail that turned out to be forgeries.
These false allegations became known as such after the war, and in the Second World War Joseph Goebbels used the story in order to deny the ongoing massacre of Jews as British propaganda. According to Joachim Neander and Randal Marlin , the story also "encouraged later disbelief" when reports about the Holocaust surfaced after the liberation of Auschwitz and Dachau concentration camps. Directed and narrated by actor and filmmaker Orson Welles , the episode was an adaptation of H.
Wells ' novel The War of the Worlds , presented as a series of simulated news bulletins. Although preceded by a clear introduction that the show was a drama, it became famous for allegedly causing mass panic, although the reality of the panic is disputed as the program had relatively few listeners. An investigation was run by The Federal Communications Commission to examine the mass hysteria produced by this radio programming; no law was found broken.
Fake news can even be found within this example, the true extent of the "hysteria" from the radio broadcast has also been falsely recorded.
The most extreme case and reaction after the radio broadcast was a group of Grover Mill locals attacking a water tower because they falsely identified it as an alien. In the 21st century, the impact of fake news became widespread,  as well as the usage of the term. The opening of the Internet to the people in the 90s was a movement meant to allow them access to information.
Over time, the Internet has grown to unimaginable heights with tons of information coming in all the time which allows the Internet to be a host for plenty of unwanted, untruthful and misleading information that can be made by anyone.
In an interview with NPR , Jestin Coler, former CEO of the fake media conglomerate Disinfomedia , said who writes fake news articles, who funds these articles, and why fake news creators create and distribute false information. Coler began his career in journalism as a magazine salesman before working as a freelance writer. He said he entered the fake news industry to prove to himself and others just how rapidly fake news can spread. Many online pro- Trump fake news stories are being sourced out of a city of Veles in Macedonia , where approximately seven different fake news organizations are employing hundreds of teenagers to rapidly produce and plagiarize sensationalist stories for different U.
One fake news writer, Paul Horner , was behind the widespread hoax that he was the graffiti artist Banksy and had been arrested;   that a man stopped a robbery in a diner by quoting Pulp Fiction ;   and that he had an "enormous impact" on the U. In a November interview with The Washington Post , Horner expressed regret for the role his fake news stories played in the election and surprise at how gullible people were in treating his stories as news.
I know all I did was attack him and his supporters and got people not to vote for him.
When I said that comment it was because I was confused how this evil got elected President and I thought maybe instead of hurting his campaign, maybe I had helped it. My intention was to get his supporters NOT to vote for him and I know for a fact that I accomplished that goal. The far right, a lot of the Bible thumpers and alt-right were going to vote him regardless, but I know I swayed so many that were on the fence.
In December , while speaking on Anderson Cooper , Horner said that all news is fake news and said CNN "spread misinformation", which was one month before Trump leveled the same criticism at that network. Horner spoke at the European Parliament in March, speaking about fake news and the importance of fact checking.
All the stories I wrote were to make Trump's supporters look like idiots for sharing my stories. Kim LaCapria of the fact checking website Snopes. Green's company found that affluent and well-educated persons in their 40s and 50s are the primary consumers of fake news. He told Scott Pelley of 60 Minutes that this audience tends to live in an "echo chamber" and that these are the people who vote. In , the Russian Government used disinformation via networks such as RT to create a counter-narrative after Russian-backed Ukrainian rebels shot down Malaysia Airlines Flight A study at Oxford University  found that Trump's supporters consumed the "largest volume of 'junk news' on Facebook and Twitter":.
In ,  researchers from Princeton University , Dartmouth College , and the University of Exeter examined the consumption of fake news during the U. Their findings showed that Trump supporters and older Americans over 60 were far more likely to consume fake news than Clinton supporters.
Facebook was by far the key "gateway" website where these fake stories were spread, and which led people to then go to the fake news websites. Fact checks of fake news were rarely seen by consumers,   with none of those who saw a fake news story being reached by a related fact check.
Brendan Nyhan , one of the researchers, emphatically stated in an interview on NBC News: "People got vastly more misinformation from Donald Trump than they did from fake news websites — full stop. NBC NEWS: "It feels like there's a connection between having an active portion of a party that's prone to seeking false stories and conspiracies and a president who has famously spread conspiracies and false claims.
In many ways, demographically and ideologically, the president fits the profile of the fake news users that you're describing. A study by researchers at Princeton and New York University found that a person's likelihood of sharing fake-news articles correlated more strongly with age than it did education, sex, or political views. Another issue in mainstream media is the usage of the filter bubble , a "bubble" that has been created that gives the viewer, on social media platforms, a specific piece of the information knowing they will like it.
Thus creating fake news and biased news because only half the story is being shared, the portion the viewer liked. This becomes a problem in today's society because people are seeing only bits and pieces and not the whole issues making it much harder to solve the issues or talk about it worldwide. The term "fake news" gained importance with the electoral context in Western Europe and North America. It is determined by fraudulent content in news format and its velocity.
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The evolving nature of online business models encourages the production of information that is "click-worthy" and independent of its accuracy. The nature of trust depends on the assumptions that non-institutional forms of communication are freer from power and more able to report information that mainstream media are perceived as unable or unwilling to reveal. Declines in confidence in much traditional media  and expert knowledge  have created fertile grounds for alternative, and often obscure sources of information to appear as authoritative and credible. This ultimately leaves users confused about basic facts.
Internet companies with threatened credibility tend to develop new responses to limit fake news and reduce financial incentives for its proliferation. When the Internet was first made accessible for public use in the s, its main purpose was for the seeking and accessing of information. The impact of fake news has become a worldwide phenomenon. Fake news has the tendency to become viral among the public. With the presence of social media platforms like Twitter , it becomes easier for false information to diffuse quickly.
More so, it is humans who are responsible in disseminating false news and information as opposed to bots and click-farms. The tendency for humans to spread false information has to do with human behavior; according to research, humans are attracted to events and information that are surprising and new, and, as a result, causes high-arousal in the brain. This prevents people from stopping to verify the information.
As a result, massive online communities form around a piece of false news without any prior fact checking or verification of the veracity of the information. Fake news has gained lots of popularity with various media outlets and platforms. One study looks at the number of fake news articles being accessed by viewers in and found that each individual was exposed to at least one or more fake news articles daily. In the mid s, Nicolas Negroponte anticipated a world where news through technology become progressively personalized.
This prediction has since been reflected in news and social media feeds of modern day. Bots have the potential to increase the spread of fake news, as they use algorithms to decide what articles and information specific users like, without taking into account the authenticity of an article.
Bots mass-produce and spread articles, regardless of the credibility of the sources, allowing them to play an essential role in the mass spread of fake news, as bots are capable of creating fake accounts and personalities on the web that are then gaining followers, recognition, and authority. In the 21st century, the capacity to mislead was enhanced by the widespread use of social media. For example, one 21st century website that enabled fake news' proliferation was the Facebook newsfeed.
danardono.com.or.id/libraries/2020-03-09/roge-cellphone-surveillance.php Numerous individuals and news outlets have stated that fake news may have influenced the outcome of the American Presidential Election. By August Facebook stopped using the term "fake news" and used "false news" in its place instead. Will Oremus of Slate wrote that because supporters of U. President Donald Trump had redefined the word "fake news" to refer to mainstream media opposed to them, "it makes sense for Facebook—and others—to cede the term to the right-wing trolls who have claimed it as their own.
The research concluded fake news consumers do not exist in a filter bubble ; many of them also consume real news from established news sources. The fake news audience is only 10 percent of the real news audience, and most fake news consumers spent a relatively similar amount of time on fake news compared with real news consumers—with the exception of Drudge Report readers, who spent more than 11 times longer reading the website than other users.
In the wake of western events, China's Ren Xianling of the Cyberspace Administration of China suggested a "reward and punish" system be implemented to avoid fake news. In Internet slang , a troll is a person who sows discord on the Internet by starting arguments or upsetting people, by posting inflammatory, extraneous , or off-topic messages in an online community such as a newsgroup , forum, chat room , or blog with the intent of provoking readers into an emotional response or off-topic discussion, often for the troll's amusement.